Iran with emphasis on synanthropy of phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus alexandri. The vectornet maps are published regularly on the website to provide the ecdc stakeholders and the general public with the most uptodate information on vector distribution. Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis zcl in iran. Ecological niche model of phlebotomus alexandri and p. Background visceral leishmaniasis vl also known as kalaazar is a growing health problem in ethiopia with an estimated annual vl incidence between 3700 and 7400. Sandfly fever is prevalent in many regions including the countries in the mediterranean basin, northern africa, the middle east. Sur phlebotomus duboscqi neveulemaire, 1906 et phlebotomus roubaudi newstead, 19 diptera, psychodidae. Pdf the potential distribution of phlebotomus papatasi.
The aim of the current study was to determine the sand fly fauna and ecology of phlebotomus orientalis in two endemic and ecologically distinct areas of. Saeidi and others published baseline insecticide susceptibility data of phlebotomus papatasi in iran find, read and cite all the research you need on researchgate. Laboratory transmission of rift valley fever virus by. The distribution of phlebotomus papatasi in southwest asia is thought to be highly dependent on temperature and relative humidity. Pdf the characterization of the phlebotomus papatasi transcriptome. Insecticide susceptibility of phlebotomus argentipes in. Human cellular immune response to the saliva of phlebotomus papatasi is mediated by. Phlebotomus fever viruses are members of the genus phlebovirus, family bunyaviridae. It occurs in subtropical regions of the eastern hemisphere.
Phlebotomus sergenti current known distribution, may 2018. Susceptibility status of phlebotomus papatasi and p. Modeling the distribution of cutaneous leishmaniasis. Immunity to vector saliva is compromised by short sand fly. Pdf detection of amastigotelike forms in the valve of. Cutaneous leishmaniasis cl is now the main vectorborne disease in iran. The name, pappataci fever, comes from the italian word for sandfly, it is the union of the word pappa food and taci silent which.
To our knowledge, this is the first account that identifies p. Exposure to phlebotomus papatasi andor leishmania major. Vector control is mainly based on environmental management but indoor residual spraying with synthetic pyrethroids is applied in many foci of leishmania tropica. Phlebotomus papatasi was the sole phlebotomus species found in the trappings. Visceral leishmaniasis vl, also know as kala azar, is one of the major public health concerns india, nepal and bangladesh.
However, sgh is less suitable for largescale studies, since obtaining sufficient numbers of salivary glands is labor intensive and. Psychodidae was investigated in optimized assays to detect general protease, trypsin and aminopeptidase activities using synthetic substrates. Evidence for genetic differentiation at the microgeographic scale in phlebotomus papatasi populations from sudan. Phlebotomus papatasi is the vector of sand fly fever and zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in middle east and mediterranean regions and is also an important model organism used to study sand flieshostparasite interactions 912. All the male specimens had coxite with very small process near the base, long and cylindrical style with three short terminal spines and two basal spines much closer to each other than to the terminal spines and surstyle with two short spines at the end.
Sand flyleishmania interactions the open parasitology journal. However, the levels and distribution of sandfly susceptibility to. To date, indoor residual spraying irs campaigns have been unable to control the disease. Bloodmeal digestion in the midgut of phlebotomus papatasi. Two forms of the disease exist in the country, transmitted by phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus sergenti s. Identification of the target proteins in the saliva of phlebotomus papatas. The sandfly phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of the old world cutaneous leishmaniasis.
B e repellent and deterrent effects of ss220, picaridin. The characterization of the phlebotomus papatasi transcriptome. Both effects are expressed as result of insect olfactory perception. Attraction of phlebotomus papatasi to common fruit in the field. Phlebotomus papatasiis a vector of sand fly fever virus and leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus papatasi yellowrelated and apyrase salivary. It is distributed from morocco to the indian subcontinent and from southern europe to central and eastern africa. Phlebotomus perniciosus an overview sciencedirect topics.
The protozoan parasite itself is a species of the genus leishmania. In the old world, phlebotomus sand flies are primarily responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, an important parasitic disease, while transmission in the new world, is generally via sand flies of the genus lutzomyia. A discriminant analysis model based on weather data and reported vector surveys was developed to predict the seasonal and geographic distribution of p. Phlebotomus papatasi, an old world sand fly species, is primarily responsible for the transmission of leishmaniasis, a highly infectious and potentially lethal disease. In recent years, the mitochondrial genome has become. One is a feeding deterrent effect and the other is a repellent effect. Pdf wspbased analysis of wolbachia strains associated. Pdf attraction of phlebotomus papatasi to common fruit. Baseline insecticide susceptibility data of phlebotomus. Leishmaniasis normally finds a mammalian reservoir in rodents and other small animals such as canids.
International travel, especially military rotations, between domestic locations and p. Paraphlebotomus alexandri sinton are widely distributed across parts of europe, africa, and asia. It is distributed from morocco to the indian subcontinent and from southern europe to. Pappataci fever also known as phlebotomus fever and, somewhat confusingly, sandfly fever and threeday fever is a vectorborne febrile arboviral infection caused by three serotypes of phlebovirus. Phlebotomus anaphlebotomus vaomalalae female figure 2 full plate. Distribution and dispersal of phlebotomus papatasi. Eleven species of sand flies including, 2 of genus phlebotomus and 9 of genus. Author summary hosts repeatedly bitten by phlebotomine sand flies develop speciesspecific antibody responses against certain sand fly salivary antigens.
Pdf the characterization of the phlebotomus papatasi. Phlebotomus papatasi was found to be the most abundant sand fly species caught in this area 12. Phlebotomus papatasi the sandfly phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of the old world cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus papatasi scopoli and compare this transcriptome to that of the new. The potential effect of global warming on the geographic. Koray ergunay, in emerging infectious diseases, 2014.
The map shows the current known distribution of phlebotomus papatasi in europe at regional administrative level nuts3, as of may 2018. A revised numerical chaetotaxy for neotropical phlebotomine sandfly larvae diptera. Detection of amastigotelike forms in the valve of phlebotomus papatasi infected with leishmania major. Leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. Phlebotomus papatasi is a vector of sand fly fever virus and leishmania major, which causes cutaneous leishmaniasis. Research open access insecticide susceptibility status of. Pdf development of a diagnostic marker for phlebotomus.
Mitochondrial genomes of two phlebotomine sand flies. Sandfly fever, also known as phlebotomus, pappataci, or 3day fever, is an arthropodborne febrile disease transmitted by phlebotomine sandflies. Development of a diagnostic marker for phlebotomus. Implication of vector characteristics of phlebotomus. There are several measures for vector control with emphasizing on. Pdf speciesdiagnostic polymerase chain reaction assays. Naides, in goldmans cecil medicine twenty fourth edition, 2012. Evidence for polygamy in phlebotomus papatasi scopoli parasite.
Bloodmeal digestion in midguts of the sandflies phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus langeroni diptera. Data on sand fly distribution during 199020 were used to predict. In morocco, cutaneous leishmaniasis is transmitted by phlebotomus sergenti and ph. Phlebotomus papatasi is the main vector of leishmania major, which is one of the causative agents of old world zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. Molecular markers for phlebotomus papatasi diptera. Human antibody reaction against recombinant salivary. Salivary gland homogenate sgh is frequently used to evaluate the levels of this antibody response in host. Diversity of sand flies diptera, psychodidae in southwest iran with. Potential distribution of phlebotomus papatasi diptera. In the indian subcontinent, vl is caused by leishmania donovani which is transmitted by phlebotomus argentipes.
An identification key for phlebotomus with the description of phlebotomus anaphlebotomus vaomalalae n. Phlebotomus papatasi is a widely distributed sand fly species in different tropical and subtropical regions including the middle east and north. Population genetics analysis of phlebotomus papatasi sand flies. Phlebotomus papatasi is anthropophagous, feeding preferentially on humans and domestic dogs throughout its range, whereas p. Development of polymorphic est microsatellite markers for the sand. Studies on sand fly fauna and ecological analysis of. After feeding on hamsters that had been inoculated with rvf virus, p. Sand fly members of the subfamily phlebotominae, within the psychodidae family, are the primary vectors of vl, while phlebotomus argentipes is the predominant vector in the isc, 5,6 considering this, three countries bangladesh, india, and nepal have set a target for the elimination of vl by 2015, with the support of the who. The molecular weight mw is shown on the left of the panel. The disease is mainly endemic in northwestern parts of the country. Psychodidae play main role in the transmission of different forms of leishmaniasis in the world.
Phlebotomus papatasi is an important vector of zoonotic cutaneous leishmanisis zcl as well as sand fly fever and p. Pdf insecticide resistance in the sand fly, phlebotomus. It has a large geographical distribution, ranging from morocco to the indian subcontinent and from southern europe to central and eastern africa. Psychodidae are important disease vectors of parasites of the. Pdf feeding patterns of phlebotomus papatasi and phlebotomus. Development of a diagnostic marker for phlebotomus papatasi to initiate a potential vector surveillance program in north america. Phleboto mus papatasi is a vector of sand fly fever virus and. Modeling distribution of the vector species is beneficial for preparedness and planning to interrupt the transmission cycle.1203 188 571 53 1317 471 1338 122 75 228 159 1116 616 1516 1265 1011 869 1143 461 1415 1455 1110 89 1431 600 163 10 368 1476 1281 1466 79 1030 1081 1484 1525 1326 1492 1008 1005 347 668 682